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Welding Engineering Tools

It is important for Welders to gain an understanding of welding engineering tools, because automation has the potential to push some aspects of the welding engineer's job onto Welders and other shop floor workers in the future.

A lot of focus has been placed on the loss of blue collar jobs, such as Welder jobs, to mechanization and robotics. Actually the easiest area for work automation is in the area of knowledge work, rather than skill based work. In the welding industry, this is the world of the welding engineer. A large part of the welding engineer’s job can be automated, as can the work of many different engineering disciplines.

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As the machine age takes hold, and engineer's jobs are automated, it is anticipated that a lot of the work currently performed by welding engineers will devolve to Welders and welding inspectors. This means that you as a Welder will need to have a working knowledge of the typical concepts and tools used by welding engineers. In this section of WelderDestiny we will look at the most common of these welding engineering tools and concepts.

Gas Platform During The Hook-Up and Commissioning (HUC) Phase of Construction

Calculating Hardenability of Steel

This is one of the most common welding engineering tools. A common concern when welding steel is to have an easy way to predict and express the hardenability of the steel. Typically, the harder the steel is once welded, the more brittle and susceptible to hydrogen assisted cold cracking. (HACC) The go-to method of doing this is to calculate the carbon equivalent of the steel. Click here to get an understanding of how that is done.

Welding Engineering Tools for Dissimilar Metal Welding

When welding together dissimilar metals, it is important to be able to estimate what metallurgical microstructure will form in the weld metal. Some microstructures will be very brittle, resulting in cracking, while some microstructures will be susceptible to hot cracking. To ensure that an acceptable microstructure is formed, one of the most widely used welding engineering tools is the Schaeffler Diagram. Click here to get a run down on how to use a Schaeffler Diagram.

Post Weld Heat Treatment

Welds are often given a post weld heat treatment. (PWHT) There are various reasons for this, and various methods of applying this PWHT. There are also certain risks associated with PWHT. Click here to get an explanation of the issues surrounding PWHT.

Comparing Heat Treatments

Often the question arises whether two heat treatments performed at different temperatures and times are equivalent. This question is especially pertinent when multiple heat treatment cycles are involved, as the heating and cooling parts of the cycle also have an effect. To answer this type of question, one of the main welding engineering tools to use is the Holloman Jaffe parameter calculation. Click here to learn how to calculate the Holloman Jaffe parameter for heat treatment cycles.

Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels

When welding stainless steels, we are often concerned with the effect of the welding on the corrosion resistance of the completed weld. In particular, the pitting resistance of the stainless steels are important. The Pitting Resistance Equivalent Number (PREN) is one of the welding engineering tools for calculating the pitting resistance of different alloys and welds. The ASTM G48 corrosion test is a more practical way of assessing the pitting resistance of higher alloyed stainless steels. Click here to get the low down on how the PREN and ASTM G48 test is used.

Fracture Mechanics as Welding Engineering Tools

In modern engineering structures, it is important to be able to understand the interaction of applied stresses, material properties and material defects. The study of how these factors interact is called fracture mechanics. This is particularly important in welds, as welds are typically the place where defects (or rather discontinuities) are most prevalent. While fracture mechanics is generally seen as a design engineering field of study, it is also an important set of welding engineering tools. For welding people, its importance is mostly from a conceptual point of view.  Click here to get a high level discussion of what fracture mechanics is, and how it is practically implemented during the welding process.

Welding Without Hydrogen Cracking

When welding stronger steel materials, Hydrogen Assisted Cold Cracking (HACC) is a real problem. HACC is characterized by cracks that form in the weld and/or heat affected zone of the base metal once the weldment reduces temperature. With adequate welding procedures, and care during welding, HACC can largely be eliminated. Click here to see what welding engineering tools can be used to reduce the probability of hydrogen cracking.

Calculating Welding Costs and Times

Welding can be a significant part of the costs in fabricating welded structures and components. Knowing how to estimate the volume of weld to be deposited, and the typical time it will take to perform the welding, is important to prepare quotations and also to plan schedules. Click here to get a general methodology for performing these calculations.

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