Wednesday, March 22, 2017 / Perth Australia / By Niekie Jooste
In this edition of "The WelderDestiny Compass":
In past editions of The WelderDestiny Compass, we have spent a lot of time looking at how technology, economics and human nature will conspire to change the world of the Welder. The one central message is however that there will be a lot more information and data available regarding the actual welding parameters and welding outcomes.
In short, welding, like so many other fields, will benefit from all the real-time data generated and analysed, so that the uncertainty associated with welding inputs and outputs will greatly reduce. When uncertainty is reduced to a low enough level, the strategies for dealing with the uncertainty will also change.
Welders of the future will have a significantly different quality assurance and quality control process to contend with than present day Welders.
If you would like to add your ideas to this week’s discussion, then please send me an e-mail with your ideas, (Send your e-mails to: firstname.lastname@example.org) or complete the comment form on the page below.
Now let's get stuck into this week’s topics...
I grew up in the age when the media told us that saturated fats like butter was really unhealthy. It was much better to use margarine. Every now and then there would be some "voices in the wilderness" claiming that butter was better, but those voices were dismissed as misinformed.
Then, slowly there was a swing away from this thinking, to claim that in fact margarine, that was based on hydrogenated fats, was much worse for our health than butter.
How could the "facts" around the health benefits of butter versus margarine change?
In the same manner, I was continuously told by the media that fats in general are really bad for me. Eating fats will result in cardio vascular disease and death! Rather, we should eat our grains. A healthy breakfast was a bowl of breakfast cereal.
Now we are told that grains in general, especially those containing gluten, are bad for us. In fact, refined carbohydrates in general can result in many chronic diseases. Best to eat proteins and "good fats". The good fats protect our hearts and minds!
How could the "facts" around the health benefits of carbohydrates, fats and proteins change?
Getting sun exposure has been vilified for decades. We are told to do our best to stay out of the sun, because the sun will result in us getting cancer. We were told that there is no such thing as a healthy tan. Now we are told that the lack of sun exposure is responsible for a myriad of cancers, chronic diseases and even psychological illness such as depression.
I can continue showing "facts" that have changed 180° in direction in my lifetime. Why is it that deeply held, and widely published "facts" can change? Surely if the people that "did the research" were not sure of their facts, they should have told us, right?
One of the obvious answers is that most research and reporting is biased. There is always somebody making a buck from getting a particular answer. That is why the organization sponsored the research in the first place! We have already discussed this shortcoming of human nature in a previous e-zine, so we will not pursue this line of thinking further today.
The ability to "find the answer we like" in data presented to us, is made possible by the fact that the data does not necessarily give obvious yes / no or right / wrong answers. The data collected during research has many different factors that influence the answers. Many of the influencing factors we are not even aware of.
The bottom line is that the less we know about something, the greater the uncertainty associated with the conclusions that we draw. The more we know, the smaller the uncertainty associated with the answers. But, how much do we really know?
The whole subject area of statistical analysis has been borne from this uncertainty in the world around us. Instead of seeing the world as a place where we have certainties, the world really is a place of probabilities. Not black and white, but many shades of grey. (Probably more than 50. - Sorry, I could not resist that!)
Given our current state of knowledge:
As our state of knowledge increases, the probabilities associated with the conclusions above either increases or decreases.
Engineering obviously also lives in this uncertain world. In our world of welding, there are uncertainties associated with:
To compensate for uncertainties, engineering uses a number of different strategies to enable us to make economical, useable and safe welded components and structures. One of those strategies is to treat some processes as "special".
If the outcome of a manufacturing process cannot be measured without destroying the component manufactured, then the process is termed a "special process". Welding is a special process. Theoretically we cannot perform enough "non-destructive testing" on a completed weld to know with a high degree of certainty that the weld will be suitable for the application.
Machining is not a special process. We can measure all the necessary dimensional tolerances required on our final component, so we know if it meets the requirements or not.
Baking a cake is also a special process. There is no way to know for sure if a cake is 100%, without destroying the cake. Destruction through taste! So, how could we "know" that a cake will be good before we take a bite?
Well, after somebody develops the new recipe for the cake, we bake the cake the first time per a well-defined recipe, following a well-defined "method". Then we taste the cake. If the cake tastes good, then we are certain that future cakes will also be good, if we follow the recipe, use adequate equipment and make sure that the person baking the cake has the skill required to do the baking.
This is the same "qualification" methodology that is followed for all special processes. It is achieved by doing the following:
In the case of welding, we can clearly see how this works:
What we need to appreciate at this point is that there are uncertainties associated with this qualification process. The mechanical tests are made on a limited number of test pieces, so statistically speaking, we do not know 100% that the mechanical properties are adequate. We only know within a certain probability that the mechanical properties are adequate.
The same goes for the corrosion properties, or the propensity of the procedure to induce welding defects.
If the necessary tests are passed, then we have a reasonably high probability that future welds following that procedure will be acceptable, but we never have complete certainty.
I believe that we will get to a situation where almost all welds have a lot of data concerning their variables recorded during production, and this information will be made available for analysis. The more data there is for analysis, the better our understanding of what the effect of the welding variables are.
Under this scenario, it then becomes possible to develop a WPS with a much higher probability of success than from a single welding procedure qualification test coupon. When statistical analyses show that WPS’s based on a lot of real-time welding data is a lower risk methodology than the traditional qualification process, then traditional qualification processes will no longer be used.
So, what will the new process be? I suspect it will be something along the following lines:
For this process to work, there still needs to be a quality assurance and quality control process in place, but the emphasis will be a lot different than is currently the case. In a future edition of The WelderDestiny Compass we will think through how the new quality assurance process will look.
Looking at the process described above, we can see that the skill base of the Welder will need to be quite a bit different to that for current Welders. These changes will not happen overnight. They will take decades rather than years, but if you are a welder under the age of 40 years old, then you will feel the full force of these changes before you retire.
Are you looking forward to the coming changes?
Yours in welding
Do You Have Thoughts About This Week's E-Zine?
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What are your thoughts on the future of Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) qualification? Do you think that a data rich future will make WPS qualification superfluous? Please share your stories, insights and even fears or wishes regarding today's topics.
Click below to see contributions from other readers of this edition of The WelderDestiny Compass...
Special Process: Addition of supervision and monitoring of the welding to ensure the WPS is being applied corectly
Qualification of welding procedures and welding operators is a given with most contacts now days and most companies spend the time and effort to do so …